It is claimed that pruning, more than just a job, it’s an art and, as such, must practice to improve the style of vegetation … And this does not mean you should become a habit, because some people are not lacking in enthusiasm and carried with scissors in hand they attack any tree or shrub in its path. To avoid exaggerations or errors regret later when the damage will be unrecoverable for many years, it is vital to take into account the objective that meets every tree or plant in our field, in addition to its characteristics and to determine the rightful pruning and if really necessary. Thus, deciduous fruit trees should be pruned, but not necessarily the evergreen and ornamental.
Ornamental: cleaning pruning
With the latter, ornamental trees and generally evergreen, beware, as with pruning can warp irreparably. If a pine, for example, cuts off the main stem, permanently lose its characteristic shape. It is also likely that our intervention is a change worse, the loss of the objective to comply in all, if you want a tree that gives shade and the glass is reduced to a minimum, we will obviously no longer in the summer.
Therefore, it should only be used in these cases to pruning cleaning, which involves cutting the dead branches (which attract fungi and insects), the injured and sick and those that are misdirected.
It should be noted that this pruning should be done as soon as possible, as the winds and rains of this time the branches take more weight and break. The same happens in the spring: When they sprout leaves, increases the weight and the winds themselves can wreak havoc September.
The deciduous fruit trees should be pruned for three reasons:
To improve fruit
There are basically three types of pruning:
The exception to make evergreen fruit trees such as orange and lemon trees, which do not need pruning, as she slows considerably its development. Only after the fifth year they should practice pruning cleaning.
Pruning to give a certain form is done in winter. It is important to give the edge to the tree when it is still young. The main branches that leave the trunk-born to them are called secondary-constitute the outline or “skeleton” of the tree and it is best to minimize them in quantity.
With this pruning results in a shapely glass, and from all angles, which allow air and light to penetrate to the branches fruitful.
The way they want to give the tree depends on the technique used, but one of the most common is to let a crown of three or four branches to the desired height, then every 50cm or so, go distributing the secondary branches.
Pruning is done rather easily. The branch is cut off above or any of its sides a yolk that eventually turn be transformed into a new branch to modify future tree foliage, according to our purpose.
It should not be cut too close nor too far from the yolk, recommending practice approximately 1cm above, because the stump that is-that is, the remains of the branch-cut or die, usually dried and necrotic (rotting ), allowing the emergence of fungal (yeast), just as happens with a cut torn.
The angle of the cut should be directed towards the tip, because the sap run off towards it, damaging it. This causes the wound sap, moreover, favors rapid healing.
Also known as the outbreak of “middle”, which is the main branch of the tree trunk pruning each year about 30 or 40 cm. Finally, you have to remove all the shoots that are directed towards the heart of the tree and all suckers (shoots long, straight and vigorous than ever produce no fruit). Also prune the side branches and hanging too long. But eye! All cuts should be made to 1cm above the buds.
Winter pruning generally has the effect of stimulating the vegetative development of the tree. If an issue develops weak, it is advisable to vigorous pruning, you get to eliminate even half of it, if the tree thrives, pruning should be very light.
In spring pruning is practiced production, which has the opposite effect to that of winter inhibits tree growth and encourages more fruiting branches to develop the secondary. The new vegetation removal, of the season, makes the fruit out earlier and in greater quantity.
This pruning consists mainly of cutting the new shoots that have no utility (misplaced) when measured between 3 and 5 cm, to avoid excess vegetation, which results in loss of shade and energy to the tree. The phenomenon is particularly evident in the vines, which give many buds on the trunk.
It is good also defoliate leafy places that cause problems by preventing the passage of the sun that will ripen the fruits, task to execute when maturity period begins.
With regard to the fruits, it is convenient to thinning in late October or November, in central-, cutting smaller, deformed, diseased and damaged. If the fruits are very close together, need to be cut some, so that they are at a distance of 8 to 10cm, preventing them from touching each other when they mature, which conspires against their better growth.